AMR - One Health Consortium Publications
Learn more about publications of the AMR - One Health Consortium members.
Host innate immune responses and microbiome profile of neonatal calves challenged with Cryptosporidium parvum and the effect of bovine colostrum supplementation
Lisa Gamsjäger, Karina M Cirone, Steffany Schluessel, Mackenzie Campsall, Aydin Herik, Priyoshi Lahiri, Daniel Young, Antoine Dufour, Panagiotis Sapountzis, Saria Otani, Diego E Gomez, M Claire Windeyer, Eduardo R Cobo
Calves are highly susceptible to gastrointestinal infection with Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum), which can result in watery diarrhea and eventually death or impaired development. With little to no effective therapeutics, understanding the host's microbiota and pathogen interaction at the mucosal immune system has been critical to identify and test novel control strategies.
Dysbiosis of a microbiota–immune metasystem in critical illness is associated with nosocomial infections
Jared Schlechte, Amanda Z. Zucoloto, Ian-ling Yu, Christopher J. Doig, Mary J. Dunbar, Kathy D. McCoy & Braedon McDonald
Critically ill patients in intensive care units experience profound alterations of their gut microbiota that have been linked to a high risk of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections and adverse outcomes through unclear mechanisms. This study tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to nosocomial infections in critical illness is driven by pathological microbiota–immune interactions, in which gut microbiota dysbiosis triggers impaired systemic immunity and host defense.
The multifaceted virulence of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli
Sarah Mansour, Tahreem Asrar, Wael Elhenawy
The surge in inflammatory bowel diseases, like Crohn's disease (CD), is alarming. While the role of the gut microbiome in CD development is unresolved, the frequent isolation of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains from patient biopsies, together with their propensity to trigger gut inflammation, underpin the potential role of these bacteria as disease modifiers. In this review, we explore the spectrum of AIEC pathogenesis, including their metabolic versatility in the gut.
Persistence of resistance: a panel data analysis of the effect of antibiotic usage on the prevalence of resistance
Sakib Rahman, Aaron S. Kesselheim, Aidan Hollis
The use of antibiotics promotes the emergence of resistant bacteria in the patient and the environment. The extent of this well-documented biological relationship is, however, not well characterized at an ecological level. To make good policy around antibiotic use, it is important to understand the empirical connection between usage and resistance. We provide a consistent approach to estimate this relationship using national-level surveillance data.
Clostridioides difficile near patient testing versus centralized testing: A pragmatic cluster randomized cross-over trial
Cody P. Doolan, Babak Sahragard, Jenine Leal, Anuj Sharma, Joseph Kim, Eldon Spackman, Aidan Hollis, Dylan R. Pillai
Management of suspected C. difficile infections (CDI) in the hospital setting typically results in patient isolation, laboratory testing, infection control, and presumptive treatment. This study investigated whether implementation of rapid near patient testing (NPT) reduced patient isolation time, hospital length of stay, antibiotic usage, and cost.
Colonic innate immune defenses and microbiota alterations in acute swine dysentery
Cristina C Fodor, Janelle Fouhse, Dominique Drouin, Tao Ma, Benjamin P Willing, Leluo L Guan, Eduardo R Cobo
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, an etiologic agent of swine dysentery (SD), is known for causing colitis. Although some aspects of colonic defenses during infection have been described previously, a more comprehensive picture of the host and microbiota interaction in clinically affected animals is required. This study aimed to characterize multiple aspects of colonic innate defenses and microbiome factors in B. hyodysenteriae-infected pigs that accompany clinical presentation of hemorrhagic diarrhea.
Systemic murine cathelicidin CRAMP safely attenuated colonic neutrophil infiltration in pigs
Cristina C Fodor, Robert McCorkell, Greg Muench, Eduardo R Cobo
Post-weaning diarrheic colitis are severe and potentially lethal diseases in young pigs. Conventional treatment with antibiotics is problematic due to increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, so the development of antibiotic-free therapies is urgently needed for livestock. Cathelicidin peptides are microbicidal compounds capable of modulating innate immune and inflammatory responses, however, the effects on gut homeostasis is poorly understood in pigs. This study supports further investigation of CRAMP as an immunomodulatory treatment for infectious colitis in pigs.
A Web-Based Tool to Identify Interventions to Reduce Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistance
Courtney MacDonald, Anna Bradford, Julia MacGregor, Kristin Flemons, Brian Traynor & John M. Conly
Proven methods to help slow the transmission of AMR are often not effectively implemented due to economic considerations, system inefficiencies, or human behaviour complexities. In response, our team is developing an online and interactive knowledge translation tool intended to accurately represent complex systems and effectively identify intervention opportunities. Using qualitative research methods, we are mapping out the sociotechnical system of the Canadian beef cattle industry from a One Health perspective.