Publications & Statistics

The table below provides a listing of Publications related to the AGRI National Project. Below the table are relevant Background Statistics as well as details related to Research Methodology and Supplementary Research Studies.

Year of PublicationPublications by First Author Surname
2023Allami, Y., Williams, R. J., Hodgins, D. C., Stevens, R., Shaw, C. A., el-Guebaly, N., Christensen, D. R., McGrath, D. C. & Belanger, Y. D., (2023). Predictors of problem gambling remission in adults: A Canadian longitudinal study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000964
2023Allami, Y., Belanger, Y. D., Christensen, D. R., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., McGrath, D. C., Nicoll, F., Williams, R. J., Shaw, C. A., & Stevens, R. (2023). Canadians with problem gambling: Relative popularity and helpfulness of treatment options. Canadian Journal of Addiction, 14(4), 55-65. https://doi.org/10.1097/CXA.0000000000000194 
2023Belanger, Y. D., Manitowabi, D., & Williams, R. J. (book proposal accepted; chapters being written for Winter 2023). Indigenous Gaming in Canada: Past, Present and Future. McGill-Queens University Press.
2024Christensen, D. R., Roberts, A., Williams, R. J., Belanger, Y. D., Shaw, C. A., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C, McGrath, D. S., Nicoll, F., Smith, G., & Stevens, R. M. G. (Accepted, March 15th, 2024). Awareness and impact of casino responsible gambling/harm minimization measures among Canadian electronic gaming machine players. International Gambling Studies.
2022Christensen, D. R., Nicoll, F., Williams, R. J., Shaw, C. A., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., McGrath, D. C., Smith, G. J., Belanger Y. D., & Stevens, R. M. G. (2022). Responsible gambling in Canada: An analysis of the RG Check patron surveys. Journal of Gambling Studies, 38(3), 905-915. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-021-10052-z [See also Greo 'snapshot summary']
2022Christensen, D. R., Nicoll, F., Williams, R. J., Shaw, C. A., Belanger, Y. D., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., McGrath, D. C., Smith, G. J., & Stevens, R. M. (2022). Harm minimization training, knowledge, and behaviour of Canadian casino employees. Journal of Gambling Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-022-10128-4
2022Hodgins, D. C., Williams, R. J., Belanger, Y. D., Christensen, D. R., el-Guebaly, N., McGrath, D. S., Nicoll, F., Shaw, C. A., Smith, G. J. & Stevens, R. M. G. (2022). Making change: Attempts to reduce or stop gambling in a general population sample of people who gamble. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.892238
2024Leslie, R.D., Shaw, C.A. & McGrath, D.S. (2024). Correlates of gambling behaviours among day traders: Evidence from a national study. Journal of Gambling Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-024-10314-6 
2021Leonard, C. A., Williams, R. J., & McGrath, D. S. (2021). Gambling fallacies: Predicting problem gambling in a national sample. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 35(8), 939-947. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000673 [See also Greo 'snapshot summary']
2022Mackey-Simpkin, S., Williams, R. J., Shaw, C. A., & Russell, G. E. H. (2022).  Prevalence and predictors of illegal gambling in Canada. International Gambling Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/14459795.2022.2149833 [See also Greo 'snapshop summary']
2023McGrath, D. S., Williams, R. J., Rothery, B., Belanger, Y. D., Christensen, D. R., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., Nicoll, F., Shaw, C. A., Smith, G,  J., & Stevens, R. M. G. (2023). Problem gambling severity, gambling behavior, substance use, and mental health in gamblers who do and do not use cannabis: Evidence from a Canadian national sample. Addictive Behaviors, 137, 107520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107520
2022Shaw, C. A., Hodgins, D. C., Williams, R. J., Belanger, Y. D., Christensen, D. R., el-Guebaly, N., McGrath, D. S., Nicoll, F., Smith, G. J., & Stevens, R. M. G. (2022). Gambling in Canada during the COVID-19 lockdown: Prospective national survey. Journal of Gambling Studies38, 371-396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-021-10073-8 [See also Greo 'snapshot summary']
2022Shaw, C. A., Hodgins, D. C., Williams, R. J., Belanger, Y. D., Christensen, D. R., el-Guebaly, N., McGrath, D. S., & Stevens, R. M. G. (2022). Gambling in Canada during the pandemic: Six months after the national COVID lockdown. Canadian Journal of Addiction, 13(3), 36-45. https://doi.org/10.1097/CXA.0000000000000157
2024Shaw, C. A. & Williams, R. (2024). Characteristics that differentiate online from land-based gamblers: Results from a national longitudinal study of gambling. Journal of Gambling Issues, 41-59. https://doi.org/10.4309/DSBT2331
2021Stevens, R. (2021). $14.5-billion per year and counting: Canadian gambling statistics. Critical Gambling Studieshttps://doi.org/10.29173/cgs110
2022Williams, R. J., Belanger, Y. D., Leonard, C. A., Stevens, R. M. G., Christensen, D. C., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., & McGrath, D. S. (2022). Indigenous gambling and problem gambling in Canada. Journal of Gambling Studies, 38, 67-85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-021-10022-5 [See also Greo 'snapshot summary']
2021Williams, R. J., Leonard, C. A., Belanger, Y. D., Christensen, D. C., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., McGrath, D. S., Nicoll, F. & Stevens, R. M. G. (2021). Gambling and problem gambling in Canada in 2018: Prevalence and changes since 2002. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 66(5) 485-494. https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743720980080
2021Williams, R. J., Leonard, C. A., Belanger, Y. D., Christensen, D. C., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., McGrath, D. S., Nicoll, F., Smith, G. J. & Stevens, R. M. G. (2021). Predictors of gambling and problem gambling in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 112, 521-529. https://doi.org/10.17269/s41997-020-00443-x [See also Greo 'snapshot summary']
2023Williams, R. J., Shaw, C. A., Belanger, Y. D., Christensen, D. R., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., McGrath, D. S. & Stevens, R. M. G. (2023). Etiology of problem gambling in Canada. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 37(3), 483-498. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000843
2023Williams, J. N., Williams, R .J., Gooding, N., & Mix, J. (2023). Financial speculation in Canada: Prevalence, correlates, and relationship to gambling. International Gambling Studies, 23(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/14459795.2022.2041702

 

Stevens, R. M. G. (2023). Canadian gambling statistics (1970-2023). Gambling and problem gambling in Canada: A National Study.

  • Canadian gambling statistics (1970-present) collected from annual reports produced by provincial and territorial organizations. Includes charts and graphs showing net revenue and net income for ticket lotteries, casinos, video lottery terminals (VLTs), online gambling, etc. Visualizations can be sorted by province or by year. Statistics are downloadable. [YouTube video: How to Find Canadian Gambling Statistics (02:10)].

Stevens, R. (2022, April). Gambling in Canada: Statistics 2020-2021. Alberta Gambling Research Institute. http://dx.doi.org/10.11575/PRISM/39700

Stevens, R. M. G. (2021). Gambling background information. Gambling and problem gambling in Canada: A National Study. https://bit.ly/3f6xScK

Research Methodology - Population Surveys


Gambling Module -- Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)

From July 2018 to December 2018 Statistics Canada will administer a 17-question 'Rapid Response' gambling module within their annual Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) to 28,000 Canadians. (This is a revision of the existing CCHS gambling module that will be used going forward for the CCHS ). Response rates to the CCHS of 64%+ are estimated by Statistics Canada, with roughly 35% administered in person via 'computer assisted personal interview' (CAPI) and 65% administered over the phone via 'computer assisted telephone interview'.

Baseline Online Panel Surveys -- LegerWeb

From August 15, 2018 to September 15, 2018 there will be administration of a Baseline Online Panel Survey (Appendix C) to 10,000 online panelists from across Canada who are members of LegerWeb. LegerWeb's online panel, known as LegerWeb, is Canada's largest online panel, with over 400,000 active members. Their panel is structured to be demographically and geographically representative of the Canadian adult population as measured by the latest census.

Supplementary Research Studies

Survey-related findings will be further bolstered with a more qualitative context for our results and some targeted surveys on groups and topics of particular importance. The following are the four specific investigations that will be undertaken:


Key informant Surveys of Major Provincial Stakeholders

These are the regulators, provincial managers of legal gambling, provincial directors of responsible gambling, casino owners, and problem gambling treatment administrators in each province. These individuals are the key stakeholders for gambling in Canada. Thus, it is essential for a national study of gambling that we solicit and record their opinions on the topic.

Key informant Interviews of Indigenous Leaders

Indigenous people will likely have the highest rates of gambling-related harm and problem gambling in Canada. In some provinces they are also involved in the commercial delivery of gambling. Thus, this segment of the population deserves special attention beyond the quantitative results of the surveys (Note: we should obtain ~250 surveys from indigenous people in the Baseline Online Panel Survey [LegerWeb] and ~1000 in the Statistics Canada Survey [CCHS-2018]).

Problem Gamblers in Treatment Survey

The survey will take no more than 15 minutes and our goal is to collect 500 surveys from across Canada, offering a $50 gift card per problem gambler in compensation.

Casino Patron Surveys

The large majority of harm minimization initiatives and variations in the legal provision of gambling are contained within casinos. Thus, the Casino Patron Surveys of regular casino patrons will enquire about people's awareness, utilization, and experience with all of the main harm minimization initiatives and variants of providing legal gambling in each province (e.g., Gambling Information Centres/terminals, casino self-exclusion, EGM precommitment, house credit, 24 hour casino operations, alcohol not being available on
the casino floor, ATM proximity, gambling advertising, responsible gambling advertising, reward card use, etc.). The plan is to have 250 5-10 minute patron surveys in a major casino in each of BC, AB, SK, ON, QU, NS with $10 per patron compensation (1,500 surveys in total).